Lewis “Lew” Wallace (April 10, 1827 – February 15, 1905) was an American lawyer, Union general in the American Civil War, governor of the New Mexico Territory, politician, diplomat, and author from Indiana. Among his novels and biographies, Wallace is best known for his historical adventure story, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880), a bestselling novel that has been called “the most influential Christian book of the nineteenth century.”
Wallace’s military career included service in the Mexican- American War and the American Civil War. He was appointed Indiana’s adjutant general and commanded the 11th Indiana Infantry Regiment. Wallace, who attained the rank of major general, participated in the battle of Fort Donelson, the battle of Shiloh, and the battle of Monocacy. He also served on the military commission for the trials of the Lincoln assassination conspirators, and presided over the military investigation of Henry Wirz, a Confederate commandant of the Andersonville prison camp.
Wallace resigned from the U.S. Army in November 1865 and briefly served as a major general in the Mexican army, before returning to the United States. Wallace was appointed governor of the New Mexico Territory (1878– 81) and served as U.S. minister to the Ottoman Empire (1881–85). Wallace retired to his home in Crawfordsville, Indiana, where he continued to write until his death in 1905.
Lewis “Lew” Wallace was born on April 10, 1827, in Brookville, Indiana. He was the second of four sons born to David Wallace and Esther French (Test) Wallace. Lew’s father, a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy in West Point, New York, left the military in 1822 and moved to Brookville, where he established a law practice and entered Indiana politics.
David served in the Indiana General Assembly and later as the state’s lieutenant governor, and governor, and as a member of Congress. Lew Wallace’s maternal grandfather was circuit court judge and Congressman John Test.
In 1832 the family moved to Covington, Indiana, where Lew’s mother died from tuberculosis on July 14, 1834.
In December 1836, David married nineteen-year-old Zerelda Gray Sanders Wallace, who later became a prominent suffragist and temperance advocate. In 1837, after David’s election as governor of Indiana, the family moved to Indianapolis.
Lew began his formal education at the age of six at a public school in Covington, but he much preferred the outdoors.
Wallace had a talent for drawing and loved to read, but he was a discipline problem at school.
In 1836, at the age of nine, Lew joined his older brother in Crawfordsville, Indiana, where he briefly attended Wabash Preparatory School, but soon transferred to another school more suitable for his age.
In 1840, when Wallace was thirteen, his father sent him to a private academy at Centerville, Indiana, where his teacher encouraged Lew’s natural affinity for writing. Wallace returned to Indianapolis the following year.
Sixteen-year-old Lew went out to earn his own wages in 1842, after his father refused to pay for more schooling.
Wallace found a job copying records at the Marion County clerk’s office and lived in an Indianapolis boardinghouse.
He also joined the Marion Rifles, a local militia unit, and began writing his first novel, The Fair God, but it was not published until 1873.
Wallace acknowledged in his autobiography that he had never been a member of any organized religion, but he did believe “in the Christian conception of God.”
By 1846, at the start of the Mexican-American War, the nineteen-year-old Wallace was studying law at his father’s law office, but left that pursuit to established a recruiting office for the Marion Volunteers in Indianapolis.
He was appointed a second lieutenant, and on June 19, 1846, mustered into military service with the Marion Volunteers (also known as Company H, 1st Indiana Volunteer Infantry).
Wallace rose to the position of regimental adjutant and the rank of first lieutenant while serving in the army of Zachary Taylor, but Wallace personally did not participate in combat.
Wallace was mustered out of the volunteer service on June 15, 1847, and returned to Indiana, where he intended to practice law. After the war, Wallace and William B. Greer operated a Free Soil newspaper, The Free Soil Banner, in Indianapolis.
In 1848 Wallace met Susan Arnold Elston at the Crawfordsville home of Henry Smith Lane, Wallace’s former commander during the Mexican War.
Susan Susan was the daughter of Major Isaac Compton Elston, a wealthy Crawfordsville merchant, and Maria Akin Elson, whose family were Quakers from upstate New York.
Susan accepted Wallace’s marriage proposal in 1849, and they were married in Crawfordsville on May 6, 1852. The Wallaces had one son, Henry Lane Wallace, who was born on February 17, 1853.
Wallace was admitted to the bar in February 1849, and moved from Indianapolis to Covington, Indiana, where he established a law practice. In 1851 Wallace was elected prosecuting attorney of Indiana’s 1st congressional district, but he resigned in 1853 and moved his family to Crawfordsville, in Montgomery County, Indiana. Wallace continued to practice law and was elected as a Democrat to a two-year term in the Indiana Senate in 1856.
While living in Crawfordsville, Wallace organized the Crawfordsville Guards Independent Militia, later called the Montgomery Guards. During the winter of 1859–60, after reading about elite units of the French Army in Algeria, Wallace adopted the Zouave uniform and their system of training for the group. The Montgomery Guards would later form the core of his first military command, the 11th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, during the American Civil War.
Wallace returned to Indiana in 1867 to practice law, but the profession did not appeal to him, and he turned to politics.
Wallace made two unsuccessful bids for a seat in Congress (in 1868 and 1870), and supported Republican presidential candidate Rutherford B. Hayes in the 1878 election. As a reward for his political support, Hayes appointed Wallace as governor of the New Mexico Territory, where he served from August 1878 to March 1881. His next assignment came in March 1881, when Republican president James A. Garfield appointed Wallace to an overseas diplomatic post in Constantinople, Turkey, as U.S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire. Wallace remained in this post until 1885.
Wallace confessed in his autobiography that he took up writing as a diversion from studying law. Although he wrote several books, Wallace is best known for his historical adventure story, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880), which established his fame as an author.
In 1843 Wallace began writing his first novel, The Fair God, but it was not published until 1873. The popular historical novel, with Cortez’s conquest of Mexico as its central theme, was based on William H. Prescott’s History of the Conquest of Mexico. Wallace’s book sold seven thousand copies in its first year. Its sales continued to rise after Wallace’s reputation as an author was established with the publication of subsequent novels.
Wallace wrote the manuscript for Ben-Hur, his second and best-known novel, during his spare time at Crawfordsville, and completed it in Santa Fe, while serving as the territorial governor of New Mexico.
Ben-Hur, an adventure story of revenge and redemption, is told from the perspective of a Jewish nobleman named Judah Ben-Hur. Because Wallace had not been to the Holy Land before writing the book, he began research to familiarize himself with the area’s geography and its history at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. in 1873.
Harper and Brothers published the book on November 12, 1880.
Ben-Hur made Wallace a wealthy man and established his reputation as a famous author.
Sales were slow at first, only 2,800 copies were sold in the first seven months after its release, but the book became popular among readers around the world By 1886 it was earning Wallace about $11,000 in annual royalties, a substantial amount at the time, and provided Wallace’s family with financial security.
By 1889 Harper and Brothers had sold 400,000 copies and the book had been translated into several languages.
In 1900 Ben-Hur became the best-selling American novel of the 19th century, surpassing Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
Amy Lifson, an editor for Humanities, identified it as the most influential Christian book of the 19th century. Others named it one of the best-selling novels of all time. At the time of Ben-Hur’s one hundredth anniversary in 1980, it had “never been out of print” and had been adapted for the stage and several motion pictures.
One historian, Victor Davis Hanson, has argued that Ben-Hur drew from Wallace’s life, particularly his experiences at Shiloh, and the damage it did to his reputation. The book’s main character, Judah Ben-Hur, accidentally causes injury to a high-ranking
Roman commander, for which he and his family suffer tribulations and calumny.
Wallace wrote subsequent novels and biographies, but Ben-Hur remained his most important work.
Wallace considered The Prince of India; or, Why Constantinople Fell (1893) as his best novel.
He also wrote a biography of President Benjamin Harrison, a fellow Hoosier and Civil War general, and The Wooing of Malkatoon (1898), a narrative poem. Wallace was writing his autobiography when he died in 1905.
His wife Susan completed it with the assistance of Mary Hannah Krout, another author from Crawfordsville. It was published posthumously in 1906.
Wallace continued to write after his return from Turkey. He also patented several of his own inventions, built a seven-story apartment building in Indianapolis, and drew up plans for a private study at his home in Crawfordsville.
Wallace remained active in veterans groups, including writing a speech for the dedication of the battlefield at the Chickamauga.
Wallace’s elaborate writing study, which he described as “a pleasure-house for my soul”, served as his
private retreat. Now called the General Lew Wallace Study and Museum, it was built between 1895 and 1898, adjacent to his residence in Crawfordsville, and set in an enclosed park. The study along with three
and one-half acres of its grounds were designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976. The property is operated as a museum, open to the public.
On April 5, 1898, at the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, Wallace, at age seventy-one, offered to raise and lead a force of soldiers, but the war office refused. Undeterred, he went to a local recruiting office and attempted to enlist as a private, but was rejected again, presumably because of his age.
Wallace’s service at the battle of Shiloh continued to haunt him in later life. The debate persisted in book publications, magazine articles, pamphlets, speeches, and in private correspondence.
Wallace attended a reunion at Shiloh in 1894, his first return since 1862, and retraced his journey to the battlefield with veterans from the 3rd Division.
He returned to Shiloh for a final time in 1901 to walk the battlefield with David W. Reed, the Shiloh Battlefield Commission’s historian, and others.
Wallace died before the manuscript of his memoirs was fully completed, so it is unknown whether he would have revised his final account of the battle.
Wallace died at home in Crawfordsville, on February 15, 1905, of atrophic gastritis. He was seventy- seven years old. Wallace is buried in Crawfordsvill’e Oak Hill Cemetery.
Wallace was a man of many interests and a life-long adventure seeker, who remained a persistent, self- confident man of action. He was also impatient and highly sensitive to personal criticisms, especially those related to his command decisions at Shiloh. Despite Wallace’s career in law and politics, combined with years of military and diplomatic service, he achieved his greatest fame as a novelist, most notably for a best- selling biblical tale, Ben-Hur.
Following Wallace’s death, the State of Indiana commissioned sculptor Andrew O’Connor to create a marble statue of Wallace dressed in a military uniform for the National Statuary Hall Collection in the U.S. Capitol.
The statue was unveiled during a ceremony held on January 11, 1910. Wallace is the only novelist honored in the hall. A bronze copy of the statue is installed on the grounds of Wallace’s study in Crawfordsville.
Lew Wallace High School opened in 1926 at 415 West 45th Avenue in Gary, Indiana. On June 3, 2014, the Gary School Board voted 4 to 2 to close Lew Wallace, along with five other schools.
Notable Hoosier Obits: Lew Wallace (http://blog.newspapers.library.in.gov/wallace/) gives a collection of Wallace obituaries from around the country.
Wallace’s obituary 16 February 1905 (http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf? res=FB0A1EF63D5912738DDDAF0994DA405B858CF1D3). New York Times (pdf format).
Lew Wallace Archive, overview with detailed bibliography of his works (http://www- personal.ksu.edu/~rcadams/)
General Lew Wallace Study & Museum, Crawfordsville (http://www.ben-hur.com/)
Works by Lew Wallace (http://www.gutenberg.org/author/Lew_Wallace) at Project Gutenberg Wallace’s time-line at General Lew Wallace Museum (http://www.ben-hur.com/meet.html)
Lew Wallace in Jerusalem, 1883 (http://www.shapell.org/manuscript.aspx?american-minister-lew- wallace-jerusalem)
Wallace’s ‘Minister Resident of the United States of America to Turkey’ Calling Card in the Shapell Manuscript Foundation Collection (http://www.shapell.org/manuscript.aspx?lew-wallace-turkey- ottoman-empire)
Boomhower, Ray E. (2005). The Sword and the Pen. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-87195-185-1.
McKee, Irving (1947). “Ben-Hur” Wallace: the Life of General Lew Wallace. Berkley: University of California Press.
Morsberger, Robert E. and Katharine M. Morsberger (1980). Lew Wallace: Militant Romantic. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-043305-4.
Stephens, Gail (2010). Shadow of Shiloh: Major General Lew Wallace in the Civil War. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-87195-287-5.
Wallace, Lew (1906). Lew Wallace: An Autobiography. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers.
Compilation of Works of Art and Other Objects in the United States Capitol. Prepared by the Architect of the Capitol under the Joint Committee on the Library. Washington: United States Government Printing House. 1965.
Brockman, Paul, and Dorothy Nicholson (2005-09-12). “Lew Wallace Collection, 1799–1972 (Bulk 1846–1905)” (http://www.indianahistory.org/our-collections/collection-guides/lew-wallace-collection- 1799-1972.pdf) (pdf). Collection Guide. Indiana Historical Society. Retrieved 2014-09-10.
Hanson, Victor Davis (2002). “Lew Wallace and the Ghosts of the Shunpike”. In Cowley, Robert. What If? 2: Eminent Historians Imagine What Might Have Been. Berkley Books. ISBN 978-0-425-18613-8.
Leepson, Marc (2007). Desperate Engagement: How a Little-Known Civil War Battle Saved Washington, D.C., and Changed American History. Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 0- 312-36364-8.
Lighty, Shaun Chandler. “The Fall and Rise of Lew Wallace: Gaining Legitimacy Through Popular Culture.” Master’s thesis, Miami University, 2005. Available online at ohiolink.edu (https://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/miami1130790468/inline).
Swansburg, John. “The Incredible Life of Lew Wallace, Civil War Hero and Author of Ben-Hur”, March 26, 2013, Slate (on-line magazine).
Swansburg, John. “Lew Wallace a Life in Artifacts”, March 26, 2013, Slate (on-line magazine).
The Fair God; or, The Last of the ‘Tzins: A Tale of the Conquest of Mexico (Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, 1873.)
Commodus: An Historical Play (Crawfordsville, IN: privately published by the author, 1876.) Revised and reissued in the same year.
Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1880.)
The Boyhood of Christ (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1888.)
Life of Gen. Ben Harrison (bound with Life of Hon. Levi P. Morton, by George Alfred Townsend), (Philadelphia: Hubbard Brothers, 1888.)
Life of Gen. Ben Harrison (Philadelphia: Hubbard Brothers, 1888.)
The First Christmas from Ben-Hur (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1899.)
Life and Public Services of Hon. Benjamin Harrison, President of the U.S. With a Concise Biographical Sketch of Hon. Whitelaw Reid, Ex-Minister to France [by Murat Halstad] (Philadelphia: Edgewood Publishing Co., 1892.)
The Prince of India; or, Why Constantinople Fell (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1893.) Two volumes.
The Wooing of Malkatoon [and] Commodus (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1898.)
Lew Wallace: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1906.) Two volumes.
1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Amy Lifson (2009). “Ben-Hur: The Book That Shook the World” (http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2009-11/BenHur.html). Humanities (Washington D.C.: National Endowment for the Humanities) 30 (6). Retrieved 2010-04-20.
2. ^ McKee, “The Early Life of Lew Wallace”, p. 206.
3. ^ Woodworth, p. 63.
4. ^ Gugin and St. Clair, p. 82 and 85.
5. ^ Boomhower, p. 13–14.
6. ^ Stephens, p. 1; Boomhower, p. 14 and 16; and McKee, “The Early Life of Lew Wallace”, p. 207.
7. ^ Gugin and St. Clair, p. 82 and 85; Boomhower, p. 19; and Stephens, p. 2.
8. ^ Morrow, p. 3.
9. ^ Boomhower, p. 9 and 15, and Morrow, p. 4.
10. ^ Boomhower, p. 17.
11. ^ a b Gronert, p. 71.
12. ^ Boomhower, p. 9 and 20–21, and McKee, “The Early Life of Lew Wallace”, p. 211.
13. ^ Boomhower, p. 22.
14. ^ McKee, “The Early Life of Lew Wallace”, p. 214.
15. ^ Stephens, p. 2–3 and 13, and Boomhower, p. 3, 9, and 23–26.
16. ^ Boomhower, p. 11.
17. ^ Stephens, p. 4; oomhower, p. 3, 26–27; and Morrow, p. 6.
18. ^ Warner, p. 536–37; Woodworth, p. 64.
19. ^ a b c d Eicher, p. 551.
20. ^ Stephens, p. 8.
21. ^ “Free Soil Banner” (http://digitallibrary.imcpl.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/fsb), digitized by the Indianapolis Marion County Public Library.
22. ^ Boomhower, p. 35.
23. ^ Stephens, p. 10.
24. ^ Boomhower, p. 39–41.
25. ^ Morrow, p. 8.
26. ^ Stephens, p. 9, 11, and 13, and Boomhower, p. 41 and 44.
27. ^ a b c Forbes, p. 388.
28. ^ a b c d Morrow, p. 9.
29. ^ Stephens, p. 14, and Boomhower, p. 4 and 44.
30. ^ Timeline from the General Lew Wallace Study and Museum. (http://www.ben-hur.com/meet-lew-wallace/timeline/)
114. ^ Morrow, p. 11, and Forbes, p. 387.
115. ^ Boomhower, p. 89.
116. ^ Forbes, p. 387, and McKee, “The Early Life of Lew Wallace”, p. 215.
117. ^ Boomhower, p. 90, and Morrow, p. 13.
118. ^ Boomhower, p. 110.
119. ^ a b Morrow, p. 15.
120. ^ Boomhower, p. 92.
121. ^ Boomhower, p. 9, 91, and 110.
122. ^ a b Stephens, p. 229.
123. ^ Boomhower, p. 11 and 110.
124. ^ Boomhower, p. 12.
125. ^ a b Boomhower, p. 111.
126. ^ Lew Wallace (2003). Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ, with a New Introduction by Tim LaHaye
(http://books.google.com/books? vid=ISBN0192831992&id=YMwjxK9vBVkC&pg=PR7&lpg=PR7&vq=wallace&dq=ben- hur&sig=jQcphhzOBPqKwmv3hoIhlVC9hqc). Signet Classic. p. vii.
127. ^ Morrow, p. 16.
128. ^ Morrow, p. 10.
129. ^ Boomhower, p. 11 and 138, and Morrow, p. 17–18.
130. ^ Hanson, Victor Davis, (2003) Ripples of Battle: How Wars of the Past Still Determine How We Fight, How We
Live, and How We Think, Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-50400-4
131. ^ Boomhower, p. 126.
132. ^ Stephens, p. 234 and 236.
133. ^ Boomhower, p. 126, and Morsberger and Morsberger, p. 415.
134. ^ Stephens, p. 232–33.
135. ^ Morrow, p. 35.
136. ^ “General Lew Wallace Study” (http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1590&ResourceType=Building). National Historic Landmark Program, Quick Links. National Park Service. Retrieved 2014-08-29.
137. ^ Adams, George R.; Ralph Christian (1975). Wallace, Gen. Lew, Study NRHP Nomination Form
(http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/76000013.pdf). American Assoc. for State and Local History.
138. ^ Stephens, p. 236; Boomhower, p. 129; and Morrow, p. 22.
139. ^ Stephens, p. 231, and Ferraro, p. 143–44.
140. ^ Stephens, p. 233–34 and 236.
141. ^ The physician’s cause of death on his death certificate is “atrophy of stomach”, which is consistent with documented reports of his health beginning in Fall 1904. See, “General Lew Wallace dies at Indiana home” (http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0A1EF63D5912738DDDAF0994DA405B858CF1D3). New York Times. February 16, 1905. p. 9. See also, Welsh, p. 357.
142. ^ Boomhower, p. 12 and 134.
143. ^ Forbes, p. 389–91 and 149–50.
144. ^ a b Boomhower, p. 138.
145. ^ Morrow, p. 22.
146. ^ Carole Carlson (2014-06-03). “Gary to Close Lew Wallace, Five Other Schools” (http://posttrib.suntimes.com/27846922-537/gary-to-close-lew-wallace-five-other-schools.html). Post-Tribune (Gary,
Indiana: Sun-Times Media, LLC). Retrieved 2014-08-24.
147. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 311.
148. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 314.
149. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 315.
150. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 340.
151. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 335.
152. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 338.
153. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 347.
154. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 341.
155. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 345.
156. ^ Russo and Sullivan, p. 348.
. Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lew_Wallace&oldid=634710521“
Boomhower, Ray E. (2005). The Sword and the Pen. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-87195-185-1.
Eicher, John H. & Eicher, David J. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
Ferraro, William M. (June 2008). “A Struggle for Respect: Lew Wallace’s Relationships with Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman After Shiloh” (http://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/imh/article/view/12348/18403). Indiana Magazine of History (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University) 104 (2): 125–152. Retrieved 2014-09-09. Forbes, John D. (December 1948). “Lew Wallace, Romantic” (http://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/imh/article/view/7736/9185). Indiana Magazine of History (Bloomington: Indiana University) 44 (4): 385–92. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
Grant, Ulysses S. (1885–86). Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant (http://www.gutenberg.net/etext/4367). I & II. New York: Charles L. Webster and Co. ISBN 0-914427-67-9.
Gronert, Theodore G. (1958). Sugar Creek Saga: A History and Development of Montgomery County. Wabash College.
Gugin, Linda C., and James E. St. Clair (2006). The Governors of Indiana. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-87195-196-7.
Hanson, Victor Davis (2003). Ripples of Battle: How Wars of the Past Still Determine How We Fight, How We Live, and How We Think. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50400-4.
Kennedy, Frances H., ed. (1998). The Civil War Battlefield Guide (2nd ed.). Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-74012-6.
Lifson, Amy (2009). “Ben-Hur” (http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2009-11/BenHur.html). Humanities (Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Humanities) 30 (6). Retrieved 2014-08- 27.
McKee, Irving (September 1941). “The Early Life of Lew Wallace” (http://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/imh/article/view/7316/8345). Indiana Magazine of History (Bloomington: Indiana University) 37 (3): 205–16. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
Morrow, Barbara Olenyik (1994). From Ben-Hur to Sister Carrie: Remembering the Lives and Works of Five Indiana Authors. Indianapolis, Indiana: Guild Press of Indiana.
Morsberger, Robert E., and Katharine M. Morsberger (1980). Lew Wallace: Militant Romantic. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-043305-4.
Russo, Dorothy Ritter, and Thelma Lois Sullivan. Bibliographical Studies of Seven Authors of Crawfordsville, Indiana.
Stephens, Gail (2010). The Shadow of Shiloh: Major General Lew Wallace in the Civil War. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-87195-287-5.
Utley, Robert (1989). Billy the Kid: A Short and Violent Life. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-80324-553-2.
Wallace, Lew (1998). Ben-Hur. Oxford World’s Classics.
Warner, Ezra J. (1964). Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
Welsh, Jack D. (1996). Medical Histories of Union Generals. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-552-7.
Woodworth, Steven E., ed. (2001). Grant’s Lieutenants: From Cairo to Vicksburg. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1127-4.